cern alice wiki

Whereas J/ψ production does not reveal any unexpected behaviour, the production of the heavier and less-bound (2S) state indicates a strong suppression (0.5–0.7) with respect to J/ψ, when compared with pp collisions.

Proton-lead collisions are an ideal tool for this study. Each lead nucleus contains 82 protons, and the LHC accelerates each proton to an energy of 3.5 TeV, thus resulting in an energy of 287 TeV per beam, or a total collision energy of 574 TeV.

[18] The upgraded ITS will open new channels in the study of the Quark Gluon Plasma formed at LHC which are necessary in order to understand the dynamics of this condensed phase of the QCD.

O detector ALICE [ 1 ] destina-se ao estudo do plasma de quarks …

It will allow the study of the process of thermalization of heavy quarks in the medium by measuring heavy flavour charmed and beauty baryons and extending these measurements down to very low pT for the first time. To test the possible presence of collective phenomena further, the ALICE collaboration has extended the two-particle correlation analysis to identified particles, checking for a potential mass ordering of the v2 harmonic coefficients.

[32] The results confirmed that the charged-particle multiplicity is rising with energy faster than expected while the shape of the multiplicity distribution is not reproduced well by standard simulations. [9] The debris contains particles such as pions and kaons, which are made of a quark and an antiquark; protons and neutrons, made of three quarks; and even copious antiprotons and antineutrons, which may combine to form the nuclei of antiatoms as heavy as helium. Two types of quarkonia have been extensively studied: charmonia, which consist of a charm quark and an anti-charm, and bottomonia made of a bottom and an anti-bottom quark. The ZDCs are "spaghetti calorimeters", made by a stack of heavy metal plates grooved to allocate a matrix of quartz fibres. A key design consideration of ALICE is the ability to study QCD and quark (de)confinement under these extreme conditions. [37], The ALICE results were announced at the August 13 Quark Matter 2012 conference in Washington, D.C.. The experiment is divided into a few main components and each component tests a specific set of particle properties. [27] It utilizes as a first layer a veto detector to reject charged particles. Inside such a radiator, fast charged particles cross the boundaries between materials with different dielectric constants, which can lead to the emission of TR photons with energies in the X-ray range. The existence of such a phase and its properties are key issues in the theory of quantum chromodynamics (QCD), for understanding the phenomenon of confinement, and for a physics problem called chiral-symmetry restoration. Lead tungstate is extremely dense (denser than iron), stopping most photons that reach it.

To develop such a Transition Radiation Detector (TRD) for ALICE many detector prototypes were tested in mixed beams of pions and electrons. The wealth of published scientific results and the very intense upgrade programme of ALICE have attracted numerous institutes and scientists from all over the world. The resulting temperature and energy density allow exploration of quark–gluon plasma, a fifth state of matter wherein quarks and gluons are freed. In August 2012, ALICE scientists announced that their experiments produced quark–gluon plasma with temperature at around 5.5 trillion kelvins, the highest temperature mass achieved in any physical experiments thus far.

The surprises have come from the similarity of several observables between pPb and PbPb collisions, which hint at the existence of collective phenomena in pPb collisions with high particle multiplicity and, eventually, the formation of QGP.[42]. There are approximately 160 000 MRPC pads with time resolution of about 100 ps distributed over the large surface of 150 m2. Below 1 GeV/c, electrons can be identified via a combination of particle identification detector (PID) measurements in the TPC and time of flight (TOF).

All particles except muons and neutrinos deposit all their energy in the calorimeter system by production of electromagnetic or hadronic showers. The Inner Tracking System (ITS) consists of six cylindrical layers of silicon detectors. Moreover, AFFAIR (A Flexible Fabric and Application Information Recorder) is the performance monitoring software developed by the ALICE Data Acquisition project.

PHOS is a high-resolution electromagnetic calorimeter installed in ALICE[24] to provide data to test the thermal and dynamical properties of the initial phase of the collision. In the case of lead-lead collisions, the configurations of the quarks and gluons that make up the protons and neutrons of the incoming lead nucleus can be somewhat different of those in the incoming protons. Collisions in the LHC generate temperatures more than 100,000 times hotter than the centre of the Sun. The ZN is placed at zero degree with respect to the LHC beam axis, between the two beam pipes. ALICE's physics programme relies on being able to identify all of them, i.e. This performance allows the separation of kaons, pions and protons up to momenta of a few GeV/c.

The analysis of the data from the p-Pb collisions at the LHC revealed a completely unexpected double-ridge structure with so far unknown origin.

Momentum and the sign of the charge are obtained by measuring the curvature of the particle's track in a magnetic field.

Grasping the wealth of experimental results requires understanding the medium modification of quarkonia and disentangling hot and cold-matter effects. This data rate is equivalent to six times the contents of the Encyclopædia Britannica every second. The ALICE cosmic ray trigger is made of 60 scintillator modules distributed on the 3 upper faces of the ALICE magnet yoke. The detector is also used for online luminosity monitoring providing fast feedback to the accelerator team. Searches for Quark Gluon plasma and a deeper understanding of the QCD started at CERN and Brookhaven with lighter ions in the 1980s. The results were based on the analysis of a sample of 300,000 proton–proton collisions the ALICE experiment collected during the first runs of the LHC with stable beams at a centre-of-mass energy, √s, of 7 TeV.

These requirements result in an aggregate event building bandwidth of up to 2.5 GByte/s and a storage capability of up to 1.25 GByte/s, giving a total of more than 1 PByte of data every year. In 1997, ALICE received the green light from the LHC Committee to proceed towards final design and construction.[5].

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