coal types

Companies use a variety of techniques to reclaim and restore mined lands. It is estimated that nearly 17 percent of the world coal reserves are lignite. Its rank is in between lignite and bituminous coal. Coal analyses may be presented in the form of “proximate” and “ultimate” analyses, whose analytical conditions are prescribed by organizations such as ASTM. Four main types are recognized: The term coal type is employed to distinguish between banded coals and nonbanded coals. It has low calorific value (8000kj/kg to 15000kj/kg) and it usually admired for its low cost. It is the oldest and least common type of coal. (Fixed carbon is the material, other than ash, that does not vaporize when heated in the absence of air. The usage of all the above terms is quite subjective. The word is derived from the Latin macerare, meaning “to macerate.” (Mineral names often end in -ite. The most commonly employed systems of classification are those based on analyses that can be performed relatively easily in the laboratory—for example, determining the percentage of volatile matter lost upon heating to about 950 °C (about 1,750 °F) or the amount of heat released during combustion of the coal under standard conditions (see also coal utilization). Other designations, such as coking coal and steam coal, have been applied to coals, and they also tend to differ from country to country. This coal is formed when a sub bituminous coal undergoes a higher level of organic metamorphism. Their reflectance values are usually the highest in a given sample. A typical proximate analysis includes the moisture, ash, volatile matter, and fixed carbon contents.

The overburden from one cut is used to fill in the mined out area of the preceding cut. Labour is responsible for mine safety. By analogy to the term mineral, British botanist Marie C. Stopes proposed in 1935 the term maceral to describe organic constituents present in coals. Coal-fired power generation currently provides more than 37% of the world's total electricity. Typical Sulfur Content in Coal. It only contains nearly 25-35 percent of carbon. This coal is not as hard as bituminous coal.

Mining companies develop and carry out plans to minimize impacts on air, land, water and wildlife. They show a wide range of reflectance values (how the coal reflects light; discussed below), but in individual samples these values tend to be intermediate compared with those of the other maceral groups. Virtually all classification systems use the percentage of volatile matter present to distinguish coal ranks.
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Thermal coal is also known as steaming coal as it is primarily used for producing steam for electricity, whereas metallurgical coal is also known as coking coke as it is used in the production of coke for iron and steel industry. In addition to the major ranks (lignite, subbituminous, bituminous, and anthracite), each rank may be divided into coal groups such as high-volatile A bituminous coal. The agglomerating character of a coal refers to its ability to soften and swell when heated and to form cokelike masses that are used in the manufacture of steel. Coalification has an important bearing on coal's physical and chemical properties and is referred to as the “rank” of the coal. ADVERTISEMENTS: Much of the present-day high quality coals were deposited during carboniferous era, i.e., about 300 million years ago. It is also further divided into three categories depending upon the carbon content – semi anthracite, anthracite and meta-anthracite.

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