Various endogenous factors interact with environmental cues to facilitate vegetative to reproductive phase transition in annual as well as perennial plants. Normalization of read counts was based on reads per million reads between 20 and 24 nt. Functional dissection of the plant-specific SBP-domain: overlap of the DNA-binding and nuclear localization domains.
The English Ivy (Hedera helix) is a well known example of a plant showing distinct juvenile and mature phases. Hortic. Developmental functions of miR156-regulated SQUAMOSA PROMOTER BINDING PROTEIN-LIKE (SPL) genes in Arabidopsis thaliana. (2015a). These identified transcripts (CDS and translated frames) were then subjected to reciprocal blasts via NCBI and TAIR Arabidopsis online databases for further confirmation.
Mol. “Introduction: botany and importance” in The mango: Botany, production and uses. doi: 10.1126/science.1114358, Wu, G., Park, M. Y., Conway, S. R., Wang, J. W., Weigel, D., and Poethig, R. S. (2009).
In addition to the miR159-MYB regulation of miR156, phase transition is thought to be regulated through as yet unknown signal(s) derived from leaves that also represses miR156 (Yang et al., 2011). A phylogenetic tree of miR172-targeted AP2-like genes was constructed using full protein sequences from different species (Figure 4A). doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2009.06.031, Wu, G., and Poethig, R. S. (2006).
To correlate miRNA/gene expression to maturity, we included plants from new seedlings up to mature flowering trees, with these having clear differences in their flowering competencies (in plants up to 2 years old, no floral structures were observed; on the other hand, 10-year-old avocado and macadamia and 5-year-old mango trees exhibited floral structures during the flowering season).
Overall, this study provides an insight into the molecular associations of juvenility and phase transition in horticultural trees where crop breeding and improvement are encumbered by long juvenile phases.
Samples from 1 month to 2 years, youngest fully expanded leaf arising from the primary unbranched shoot was collected. Full-length CDS/Open Reading Frames (ORFs) were predicted manually by aligning and comparing all similar transcripts from different transcriptomic resources and further aligning to the genomic data.
The SCRAM pipeline was used for quantifying miRNA reads (Fletcher et al., 2018). doi: 10.1016/j.devcel.2009.06.007, Yang, L., Conway, S. R., and Poethig, R. S. (2011). *Correspondence: Neena Mitter, firstname.lastname@example.org, Front. For gene quantification, cDNA was synthesized using SensiFAST™ cDNA Synthesis Kit (Bioline, London, UK) on 600-ng total RNA as per manufacturer’s protocol.
A microRNA as a translational repressor of APETALA2 in arabidopsis flower development. To explore whether the variation in miR156 expression during phase transition may have a functional significance in our three selected fruit tree species, transcript homologs for Arabidopsis SPL genes, all possessing miR156 target sites, were identified in avocado, mango, and macadamia using in-house genomics and transcriptomic resources (Supplementary Figure S1) (see Materials and Methods section). In a broad sense, as miR156 levels start declining, the level of its targeted SPL genes starts increasing. Phylogeny and domain evolution in the APETALA2-like gene family.
Relative abundance of miR156 and miR172 was quantified by qRT-PCR in the leaves of (A,D) avocado, (B,E) macadamia, and (C,F) mango. These transcripts were then translated in all six frames.
Given that both SPL4 and AP1 showed patterns of expression correlating to phase transition in tree crops investigated, we also profiled SOC1 homologs following their identification in our available transcriptome data (PaSOC1a, MciSOC1a, and MiSOC1).
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