seafloor spreading

= These areas are named triple junctions and can be found in several places across the world today. e As it moves, it becomes cooler, more dense, and more thick. T Subduction happens where tectonic plates crash into each other instead of spreading apart.
x and the heat equation is: where ancient, giant landmass that split apart to form all the continents we know today. On the basis of Tharp’s efforts and other new discoveries about the deep-ocean floor, Hess postulated that molten material from Earth’s mantle continuously wells up along the crests of the mid-ocean ridges that wind for nearly 80,000 km (50,000 miles) through all the world’s oceans. The source of the lithosphere has a half-plane shape (x = 0, z < 0) and a constant temperature T1.

The Earth’s crust is broken up into a series of massive sections called plates.

You cannot download interactives. Since T depends on x' and t only through the combination By substituting the parameters by their rough estimates: where the height is in meters and time is in millions of years. At this point basaltic oceanic crust and upper mantle lithosphere begins to form between the separating continental fragments.
b Eventually, Mid-ocean ridges and seafloor spreading can also influence, Seafloor spreading disproves an early part of the theory of, Seafloor spreading is just one part of plate tectonics. {\displaystyle T=T(x,z).}. Samples collected from the ocean floor show that the age of oceanic crust increases with distance from the spreading centre—important evidence in favour of this process. As the crust bows upward, fractures occur that gradually grow into rifts.


The continents bordering the Atlantic Ocean, for example, are believed to be moving away from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge at a rate of 1–2 cm (0.4–0.8 inch) per year, thus increasing the breadth of the ocean basin by twice that amount. {\displaystyle \alpha _{\mathrm {eff} }} In some locations spreading rates have been found to be asymmetric; the half rates differ on each side of the ridge crest by about five percent. Seafloor spreading is a process that occurs at mid-ocean ridges, where new oceanic crust is formed through volcanic activity and then gradually moves away from the ridge. {\displaystyle x'=x-vt,}

Evidence of Sea Floor Spreading 1.

movement of a fluid from a cool area to a warm area. {\displaystyle \kappa } Terms of Service |  L Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. When Earth's geomagnetic field undergoes a reversal, the change in polarity is recorded in the magma, which contributes to the alternating pattern of magnetic striping on the seafloor. As upwelling of magma continues, the plates continue to diverge, a process known as seafloor spreading. ρ ′

The survey data was used to create three-dimensional relief maps of the ocean floor, and, by 1953, American oceanic cartographer Marie Tharp had created the first of several maps that revealed the presence of an underwater mountain range more than 16,000 km (10,000 miles) long in the Atlantic—the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. [27] Depth is better explained by a cooling lithosphere plate model rather than the cooling mantle half-space. [16] The process starts by heating at the base of the continental crust which causes it to become more plastic and less dense. Intermediate ridges have a spreading rate of 40–90 mm/year while slow spreading ridges have a rate less than 40 mm/year. to formulate and propose a group of ideas to explain a scientific question. The Pacific is also home to one of the world's most active spreading centers (the East Pacific Rise) with spreading rates of up to 145 +/- 4 mm/yr between the Pacific and Nazca plates.

is of interest. v The Red Sea has not yet completely split Arabia from Africa, but a similar feature can be found on the other side of Africa that has broken completely free. T

Seafloor spreading and other tectonic activity processes are the result of mantle convection. This article was most recently revised and updated by,, Public Broadcasting Service - Sea-Floor Spreading Hypothesis, NOAA - Ocean Explorer - Seafloor Spreading Activity. National Geographic Headquarters At first the driving force for spreading was argued to be convection currents in the mantle.

the sudden shaking of Earth's crust caused by the release of energy along fault lines or from volcanic activity. molten, or partially melted, rock beneath the Earth's surface. Rising magma assumes the polarity of Earth's geomagnetic field before it solidifies into oceanic crust. ≤

= m f

massive slab of solid rock made up of Earth's lithosphere (crust and upper mantle).

  The youngest regions are coloured red, whereas the oldest regions are coloured blue. ) rock formed by the cooling of magma or lava. having the same arrangement of parts on either side. v mid-ocean ridge where seafloor spreading is occuring at less than 55 millimeters (2 inches) a year. area where two or more tectonic plates are moving away from each other. In the Afar Triple Junction, the African, Somali, and Arabian plates are splitting from each other.

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