shenzhou capsule

[3][4] Included in the agreement were training of cosmonauts, provision of Soyuz spacecraft capsules and life support systems, androgynous docking systems, and space suits. Carried scientific payload including monkey, dog, rabbit and other animals. The main propulsion system of the Shenzhou vehicle is also located in the aft Service Module. The computers constantly monitor attitude, velocity and altitude to target a landing ellipse 30 km in range and 15 km laterally. Phase 3 would involve orbiting of a 20-ton space station in the 2010–2015 period, with crews being shuttled to it using the 8-ton crewed spacecraft. The program put the first Chinese citizen, Yang Liwei, into orbit on 15 October 2003. Crews also wear Launch and Entry Suits that are very similar to Russian Sokol Suits. This unit controls all aspects of the flight – including ascent, orbital flight and re-entry as well as the landing process. First three-person crew, first Chinese spacewalk. [citation needed], The Chinese media has heavily promoted the experiments undertaken by Shenzhou, particularly exposing seeds, including some from Taiwan, to zero gravity and radiation. First Chinese crewed flight, 14 Earth orbits. With renewed determination, she fired the thrusters and shot off toward the Chinese station on momentum. It has a liftoff mass of 3,000 Kilograms, is 2.94 meters in length and 2.5 meters in diameter. The SM Main Propulsion System and Reaction Control System are unified – both systems use Monomethylhydrazine as fuel and Nitrogen Tetroxide as oxidizer. Finally, it has been argued that the prestige resulting from this capability will increase China's stature in the world, in a similar manner to the 2008 Olympics. Indeed, two earlier human spaceflight programs, one in the mid-1970s and the other in the 1980s, were cancelled because of expense. The plan called for a crewed launch in October 1999, prior to the new millennium.

Inside the module are food provisions and clothing for the crew as well as smoke generators, signal rockets and dye markers as well as an emergency raft for a water landing. It consists of four main engines each providing 2,500 Newtons of Thrust. The Service Module Reaction Control System consists of eight 150-Newton high-thrust pitch and yaw jets, eight low-thrust (5N) pitch and yaw jets as well as eight 5-Newton low-thrust engines for roll control mounted at the center of gravity. The first uncrewed flight of the spacecraft was launched on 19 November 1999, after which Project 921-1 was renamed Shenzhou, a name reportedly chosen by Jiang Zemin. The vehicle’s guidance system uses digital and analogue sun sensors, infrared horizon sensors, a strapdown inertial measurement unit, and a global positioning system receiver. Luckily, because the Shenzhou was more or less a Chinese version of the Soyuz, she was able to piece together what she needed to allow the Shenzhou to break apart from the surrounding Tiangong Station as what was left of it hurled through the Earth's upper atmosphere at over 25,000 feet per second. Although China did launch an uncrewed satellite in 1970 and has maintained an active uncrewed program since, the crewed spaceflight program was cancelled due to lack of funds and political interest. Eight 150-Newton Thrusters are mounted on the module using Hydrazine as propellant. Vehicle Control after module separation is accomplished with the entry module’s Attitude Control System. The capsule hit the water and floated for a moment – radio cracking to life as Houston was finally able to make contact, promising a rescue.

The Shenzhou spacecraft resembles the Russian Soyuz, although it is larger. The altimeter is used to provide altitude and rate of descent information to the flight computers during the final minutes of the landing sequence. All these sensors provide information to the digital flight control system that is operating the vehicle automatically.

The crew accommodations of the Entry module are derived from the Soyuz with three custom-made seat-liners for the crew that are equipped with shock-absorbing systems. This Rendezvous Navigation system was developed in China and is not used aboard the Russian Soyuz Vehicle. Dr. Ryan Stone was first told about the Shenzhou by Matt Kowalski who told her that the Soyuz Capsule's parachute was deployed, rendering it useless for re-entry. The entry module’s emergency data recorder was built so withstand 10,000 G’s and a temperature of 1,200°C providing 10MB of solid-state memory. The orbital module and entry modules also have Reaction Control Systems that are available for use. The Shenzhou reentry capsules used are 13% larger than Soyuz reentry capsules, and it is expected that later craft will be designed to carry a crew of four instead of Soyuz's three, although physical limitations on astronaut size, as experienced with earlier incarnations of Soyuz, will likely apply. The module features two solar arrays that are deployed after orbital insertion and silver-zinc batteries that form the electrical system of the spacecraft. Retrieving the fire extinguisher that she used to fight the fire on the ISS, she blasted the airlock open with explosive decompression and was thrown out into space. Shenzhou means Divine Craft. Ryan closed her eyes and put the helmet to her spacesuit on. Archived from the original on 13 October 2005. Unlike the Soyuz, it features a powered orbital module capable of autonomous flight. The Entry Module is loaded with emergency equipment should landing occur in terrain that is unreachable for initial recovery forces. The Shenzhou Spacecraft consists of three sections – similar to the Russian Soyuz Vehicle it is based on: the Orbital Module, Instrumentation Module and Entry Module between the other two sections. Another is that such a program will catalyze the development of science and technology in China. The Instrumentation or Service Module is located underneath the other two modules and houses equipment necessary to support the vehicle during its mission. These values are lower than the cost of similar space programs in other nations. The vehicle operates on a 28-Volt power bus and the batteries can provide emergency power for up to six hours. These were followed by crewed missions.

[5], The name Shenzhou is variously translated as Divine vessel,[6] Divine craft,[7] or Divine ship. Four tanks can hold up to 1,000 kilograms of these propellants. Six solid rocket engines ignite 1 meter above the ground to reduce the vehicle’s velocity to its touchdown speed of 3.5 meters per second. [9], The current Chinese human spaceflight program was authorized on 21 September 1992 by Standing Committee of Pulitburo as Project 921–1, with work beginning on 1 January 1993. Phase 1 would involve launch of two uncrewed versions of the crewed spacecraft, followed by the first Chinese crewed spaceflight, by 2002. [8], China's first efforts at human spaceflight started in 1968 with a projected launch date of 1973. The capsule exploded forward, taking the lead of the debris field as the station fell apart with each passing second – erupting into lines of fire across the sky. However, an electrical fire broke out, forcing Stone to escape the Shenzhou immediately. It is a semi-monocoque aluminum structure that is cylindrical in shape. The APAS System was used during the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project and Space Shuttle Missions to the Mir and ISS Space Stations. Will continue construction of the Chinese Space Station. in 1980, the Chinese government cancelled the program citing cost concerns. The initial plan has three phases:[10], The chief designers include Qi Faren and Wang Yongzhi.

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