The Radiometer Atmospheric CubeSat Experiment, or RACE, is a test of technology designed to improve NASA's Earth science and space exploration capabilities. Along with its twin Mariner 7 spacecraft, Mariner 6 was designed to make a close flyby of Mars to study the surface for signs of life and develop technology for future missions. Originally built as a backup to the Mariner 4 spacecraft, which successfully journeyed to Mars in 1965, Mariner 5 was modified to fly by Venus and collect data on the planet's atmosphere, radiation and magnetic field. Designed to make the first-ever global survey of Earth's surface water, the Surface Water and Ocean Topography, or SWOT, satellite will collect detailed measurements of how water bodies on Earth change over time. Astronomers around the world will be able to mine data from these archives to conduct a broad range of studies, greatly increasing the impact of the mission. After Surveyor 1's initial studies of the lunar surface in 1966, Surveyor 3 made further inroads into preparations for human missions to the moon. The observatory will collect an estimated 20 petabytes of data over its planned 5-year mission – the equivalent of a 40,000-year-long song in mp3 format. The WFIRST-AFTA Design Reference Mission (DRM) uses existing 2.4-meter telescope hardware, along with heritage instrument, spacecraft, and ground system architectures and hardware to meet the WFIRST-AFTA science requirements.
First launched a decade after its predecessors, Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C was coupled with the German-built X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar to image Earth in three different wavelengths. Integrated Solar Array and Reflectarray Antenna. In March 2020 a launch on either a Falcon-Heavy (Block 5), a Vulcan Centaur or a New Glenn is evaluated. This is not the first time that the administration has sought to terminate WFIRST. Using advanced radar imaging that will provide an unprecedented, detailed view of Earth, the NASA-ISRO Synthetic Aperture Radar, or NISAR, satellite is designed to observe and take measurements of some of the planet's most complex processes. Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment Follow-On. In that role, the Institute will plan, schedule, and carry out observations, process and archive mission datasets, and engage and inform the astronomical community and the public. The Project manager is Jamie Dunn, who succeeded Kevin Grady in late 2018. With the 2.4 m telescope, a coronagraph instrument has been added to the payload for direct imaging of exoplanets and debris disks. Despite a perfect flight to the moon, Surveyor 4, which was designed to conduct further studies of the lunar surface in preparation for the upcoming Apollo missions, met an untimely end just 2.5 minutes before landing on the moon.
AURA’s Space Telescope Science Institute in Baltimore, Maryland, conducts Hubble science operations. The Mars Observer was based on a commercial Earth-orbiting spacecraft and designed to study and take high-resolution photography of the Martian surface. NASA spokesperson Felicia Chou said March 3 that the Key Decision Point C review projected that WFIRST would be ready for launch “by 2026.” Beyer’s letter asked House appropriators to provide $505.2 million for the mission in 2021, and Chou said March 4 that $505.2 million was the amount required for WFIRST in fiscal year 2021 to stay on schedule.
Nancy Grace Roman Space Telescope. A space-based telescope designed to study some of the coldest and darkest regions of the universe using infrared light, Herschel was responsible for numerous findings about dark matter, galaxies and other cosmic mysteries. It will also image large clusters of galaxies, characterize the dark matter around them, and discover thousands of galaxies at very high redshifts, which will provide the tools to study how galaxies evolve over cosmic time.
It will image stars and gas in our own galaxy, measuring its structure, surveying the birthplaces of stars, and finding telltale signs of smaller galaxies torn apart by interactions with the Milky Way. Asteroid Redirect Mission Ends Development. The first spacecraft to successfully land on Mars, Viking 1 was part of a two-part mission to investigate the Red Planet and search for signs of life. Designed to fly aboard NASA's Space Shuttle Columbia, STS-2, Shuttle Imaging Radar-A was the first in a series of instruments that imaged Earth using radar pulses, rather than optical light, as illumination. While its aim was to study Jupiter and its mysterious moons, which it did with much success, NASA's Galileo mission also became notable for discoveries during its journey to the gas giant.  NASA was funded via a FY2019 appropriations bill on 15 February 2019 with US$312 million for Roman, rejecting the President's Budget Request and reasserting the desire for completion of Roman with a planning budget of US$3.2 billion. The FY2020 Consolidated Appropriations Act funds the WFIRST program through September 2020. The Roman Space Telescope will have the same sensitivity and resolution as the Hubble Space Telescope, but will have a viewing area 100 times bigger than Hubble.
The Trump administration's 2021 NASA budget proposal again tries to cancel the mission. The Roman Space Telescope will deliver new insights into the history and structure of the universe, including the mysterious "dark energy" that is making space itself expand faster and faster. The Roman Space Telescope is based on an existing 2.4 m wide field-of-view primary mirror and will carry two scientific instruments.
To date, astronomers have found most planets when they pass in front of their host star in events called transits, which temporarily dim the star's light.  However, on 22-23 March 2018, Congress approved a FY18 Roman budget in excess of the administration's budget request for that year and stated that Congress "rejects the cancellation of scientific priorities recommended by the National Academy of Sciences decadal survey process", and further directed NASA to develop new estimates of Roman's total and annual development costs. Roman was recommended in 2010 by United States National Research Council Decadal Survey committee as the top priority for the next decade of astronomy. Ranger 6 was principally designed to transmit high-resolution photographs of the moon before impacting the lunar surface and was part of the series of nine Ranger spacecraft launched in the early 1960s to explore the moon. Considered a cousin of the Hubble Space Telescope, the Spitzer Space Telescope was designed to study the early universe in infrared light. Equipped with a chemical element analyzer for conducting analyses of the lunar soil, the Surveyor 5 lander was the first spacecraft to do a soil analysis on the moon, or any other world. Stardust-NExT was a follow-on mission that repurposed the Stardust spacecraft for a close re-encounter with comet Tempel 1 on Feb. 14, 2011. Explorer 4 was designed to further investigate the radiation belt around Earth, discovered during the Explorer 1 and 3 missions. First SLS launch now expected in late 2021 by Jeff Foust — May 14, 2020 The core stage for the Artemis 1 SLS being installed on the test stand earlier this year at the Stennis Space Center. The Quick Scatterometer, or QuikScat, was an Earth satellite that provided valuable data on ocean winds, revolutionizing environmental predictions and weather forecasting. Spergel cited a “dear colleague” letter being circulated by Rep. Don Beyer (D-Va.) requesting support from other members of Congress to restore WFIRST funding. The Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar, or UAVSAR, is an imaging radar instrument that collects key measurements of Earth deformation. The Nancy Grace Roman Space Telescope (shortened as Roman or the Roman Space Telescope, and formerly the Wide Field Infrared Survey Telescope or WFIRST) is a NASA infrared space telescope currently under development.
, In testimony before Congress in July 2018, NASA administrator Jim Bridenstine proposed slowing down the development of Roman in order to accommodate a cost increase in the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), which would result in decreased funding for Roman in 2020–2021.  The fiscal year 2016 spending bill provided US$90 million for Roman, far above NASA's request of $14 million, allowing the mission to enter the "formulation phase" in February 2016. NGRST (Nancy Grace Roman Space Telescope), formerly known as WFIRST (Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope), is a planned NASA observatory designed to perform wide-field imaging and slitless spectroscopic surveys of the near infrared (NIR) sky.
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